How Many Fish Can Be In A 10 Gallon Tank?

Determining how many fish can be in a 10 gallon tank requires consideration of a number of factors. The shape and dimensions of the tank will have an impact on the number of fish. In general, saltwater fish need more room than freshwater fish do. Within these broad categories the various species of fish often have characteristics which influence the population density of your aquarium. The level of tank maintenance you intend to perform can also impact the number of fish your aquarium can safely support. Regular partial water changes are key to the aquarium’s health and will increase the population size your tank can support.

General Guidelines

One general guideline that is commonly used is the one inch per gallon rule. This states that each gallon of water can support one inch of fish. The fish size refers to an adult fish. Caution must be taken when purchasing fish so you know their adult size. Fish sold in pet stores are often juveniles and will turn out much larger than purchased when they reach adulthood. You also need to consider the fact that some of your water has been displaced by substrate and tank decorations thereby reducing the amount of usable water.

A better guideline to use is to calculate the square inches of surface area of your tank. The water’s surface is where oxygen exchange occurs, so more surface area means more oxygen introduced for your fish. A standard 10 gallon tank is 20 by11 inches giving a surface area of 220 square inches. Using this number you then need to consider the type of fish you will keep. Using this rule you can go with 1 inch of adult fish per 12 square inches of surface area for slender freshwater fish such as tetras. More full bodied fish like cichlids should get closer to 20 square inches per inch of fish. Marine organisms require more space and should get 30 square inches of surface area per inch. In all cases a filter or air-stone should be in place to agitate the water’s surface which increases the tank’s oxygen exchange.

Suggestions For Stocking A 10 Gallon Aquarium

A 10 gallon tank is a nice size for a small community of freshwater tropical fish. I believe this aquarium size is too small to set up a successful marine environment. A great first step is to obtain some small catfish that will help maintain the tank’s cleanliness as well as being very entertaining to observe. Small Corydoras such as Pepper cats will thrive and you can add up to 3 to 4 of these. I always start a small aquarium with a few Corys.

This size aquarium affords you the luxury of keeping several species of fish or having a substantial school of a single type. Taking into consideration their size and compatibility you can go many different ways. You could go with 4 pairs of guppies of platties or a mix of both if you prefer livebearing fish. With these fish there is always the opportunity to find baby fish in your tank. Conversely you could go with a school of 12 to 16 neons or white-cloud mountain minnows.

If a varied community is more to your liking there are many ways to go. Tiger barbs are vary hardy fish that will do well in this size aquarium. They are fin nippers and should not be kept with guppies, but a combination of small tetras or platties with some Tiger barbs will work. I would suggest that 4 Tiger barbs with either 4 platties or 8 neons along with 2 Cory catfish make a nice community. You can substitute other small barbs like Rosy barbs or Cherry barbs but its best to go with a group of the same species of barbs.

Small cichlids like the Ram will go well in this size aquarium. With 2 catfish you could safely keep up to 8 to 10 of these beautiful fish in a 10 gallon tank. Using the above guidelines there are many different combinations of fish you can house in your aquarium. Your best results will come from keeping to these size guidelines and avoid overcrowding your tank. A link to an estimator tool is included below.

How Much Sand Should I Use For My Aquarium?

Sand is used as a substrate primarily in marine, reef and brackish water aquariums. This substrate has been found to be conducive to increased survivability of the marine organisms kept in the aquarium. The sand bed is a living organism that becomes home to microorganisms and will become a driving force in the tank’s ability to perform adequate biological filtration. When you are initially setting up your tank you can choose to use live or inert sand. Live sand is more expensive but gives the tank a head start on biological filtration. Over time any sand bed becomes live as microorganisms begin to thrive.

A question many aquarists have is how much sand to use in setting up their aquarium. To properly answer this question, it is required that some planning be done regarding the inhabitants, filtration method and decor of your tank before purchasing the sand. I would not recommend sand as the substrate if you plan to use an under gravel filter as the particles are too fine and will cause issues with your system. A canister filter would be a better choice for your aquarium.

How Much Sand Should I Use For My Aquarium?

Depth Of The Sand Bed

The aquarium’s sand bed can be classified as shallow or deep. A shallow bed will be 1 to 2 inches deep, whereas a deep bed can go upwards of 4 to 6 inches. All sand beds need to be cleaned by regular vacuuming and shallow beds are easier to clean. Some aquarists prefer the look of a shallow bed, especially in reef tanks as it tends to produce a more natural look. On the other hand, a deep bed is better for placing large rocks or driftwood as they can be more securely anchored in the deeper sand. One potential drawback of the deeper bed is that thorough cleaning or stirring or the sand needs to be done to prevent buildups of gasses such as methane and carbon dioxide that will negatively affect your fish.

The marine organisms you choose to keep are another factor that will influence the depth of sand bed required. In any depth you certainly will benefit by including some sand stirrers in your community. These include crabs, hermit crabs and snails. Any depth sand bed will benefit from having these creatures around. Burrowing fish such as gobies and wrasses are also good sand stirrers. These fish will do better in a tank with a deeper bed of at least 4 inches as they will thrive in an environment where they can burrow as they would in the wild.

A deeper sand bed will allow for more microorganisms to thrive, and some aquarists find watching the growth of these worms and other creatures to enhance their enjoyment of their aquarium. As you can see there are some decisions you need to make to determine what kind of sand bed you desire.

Calculating The Amount Of Sand Required

Once you determine the depth of the sand bed you would like to have in your aquarium it is a fairly straightforward process to determine the amount of sand required. Using the tank’s dimensions and the sand depth desired there are calculators available that will give you a very good estimate of the amount of sand to purchase. For example let’s take a 55 gallon tank. Its dimensions are 48.25 inches by 12.25 inches. Running these numbers through the sand bed depth calculator gives us 24 pounds for a 1 inch bed. This number just needs to be multiplied by the depth you plan to use and you have your estimate. For a four inch be you should plan on about 100 pounds of sand. There is a link to a sand bed depth calculator included below. I hope this information helps you in deciding how much sand you need for your aquarium.

Another articles that you may need to read:​

How much gravel you need for your aquarium?

How Many Fish Can Be In A 10 Gallon Tank?​

How Much Gravel Should I Use For My Aquarium?

Many aquarists have a basic question when planning and setting up an aquarium. How much gravel should I use? This question requires that you put some thought into the inhabitants of your tank. Another factor to consider is how you plan to decorate your tank, and the final look you desire. Perhaps the most important consideration is whether you are going to have live plants in your aquarium. Choosing the correct gravel can make the difference between a beautifully planted tank and one where your plants cannot thrive.

Factors That Influence Gravel Type And Depth

When planning your aquarium these factors will help determine the type and depth of the gravel you are purchasing. Two inches of gravel is a good starting point for most freshwater aquariums. A tank including live aquarium plants should have a deeper gravel bed to allow the plant roots room to grow and flourish. Some plant species such as sword plants do much better in a deeper gravel bed as they have extensive root systems. Other plants such as anacharis do not generate a root system, obtaining nourishment directly from the light and water.

The type of decor you will use is also an important consideration. I like to use some large rocks to form caves in my aquariums. I also tend to favor large pieces of driftwood which often require some form of anchoring to keep them stationary. For that reason I use a deeper gravel bed. From an aesthetic point of view, a gentle sloping from shallow to deeper as you go further back in the tank looks best. So for a tank with large rocks and driftwood I go from 2 inches in the front of the tank to 4 inches in the back. Artificial plants require a shallower depth and two inches should suffice.

Most aquarists consider the fish to be the most important aspect of their aquarium and here again the species you are keeping can help determine the type of gravel. Use caution not to purchase any gravel with sharp edges if you have burrowing fish such as catfish or loaches. They can be injured as they scour the bottom of the tank searching for food.

Gravel can be obtained in many sizes. Gravel consisting of larger pieces such as river rock needs some special care. Spaces between the gravel enable food particles and waste to be trapped under the surface. As these substances decay they can cause harm to your fish so extra care must be taken in keeping this type of gravel bed clean. Some fish will do much better with a finer grade gravel. Firemouths in tanks with a fine substrate can be seen picking up mouthfuls of gravel and they graze and when preparing a nest.

As you can see it is critical to carefully consider the appearance and inhabitants of your aquarium when making your decision on the the type and depth of gravel to use. It is the foundation of your aquarium and its purchase should not be taken lightly.

Determining How Much Gravel To Use

Once you have considered the above factors it is a fairly straightforward process to determine the amount of gravel you will need. Using the tank’s dimensions and the depth desired there are calculators available that will give you a very good estimate of the amount of gravel to purchase. For example let’s take a 55 gallon tank with dimensions of 48.25 inches by 12.25 inches. Running these numbers through the gravel depth calculator gives us 30 pounds for a 1 inch bed. This number just needs to be multiplied by the depth you plan to use and you have your estimate. For a four inch be you should plan on about 100 pounds of gravel.

For the sloping aquascape that I favor, I would use about 80 pounds. There is a link to a gravel depth calculator included below. I hope this information helps you in deciding how much gravel you need for your aquarium.

How Long Can Fish Go Without Food

Fish comprise a widely diverse class of aquatic vertebrates. Ranging in size from the enormous whale shark to the tiny neon tetra, fish exhibit varying behaviors regarding feeding and food sources. These variances include differences in their ability to go without food for prolonged periods of time.

Categories Of Fish

Fish fall into one of four categories based on diet. These are carnivores, herbivores, omnivores and limnivores. Carnivores such as sharks and cichlids eat meat. Tangs are herbivores and consume plants and algae. Limnivores eat mud-based foods and omnivores eat both plants and other animals. These distinctions have an impact on feeding frequency.

In general, carnivorous fish can survive longer without feeding than other fish. In nature, carnivores often go days without catching prey and are designed to withstand periods of food scarcity. The other categories require more frequent feeding to survive. Herbivores and limnivores spend the majority of time eating and searching for food. This is due to the fact that the plant matter consumed has a lower nutritional value.

Extremes In Feeding Behavior

Salmon spend most of their lives in salt water. During their time in the ocean they eat constantly, building up fat stores that will enable them to spawn in fresh water. Moving from salt to fresh water shocks the salmon’s internal organs, shutting down their digestive systems. They can survive for months on the stored fat but will eventually die after spawning.

Sharks need to consume between 0.5 to 3 percent of their body weight daily to maintain their health. Slow metabolism enables this requirement to be accomplished with a large catch that can allow the shark to go up to two weeks between feedings.

The plecostomus is a limnivore and eats mud-based foods. They constantly feed on algae and other microorganisms, slowly grazing along the bottom of an aquarium. Its appetite and food choice make it an excellent aquarium tenant as it helps keep the tank clean as it feasts.

Common Aquarium Fish

Discus and cichlids larger than 10 cm can survive up to two weeks without feeding. This is true of most fish this size. Some larger fish can survive for several months.

Guppies, tetras and other smaller fish will not make it as long. They should not go more than a week without food.

Goldfish will be able to withstand up to two weeks without feeding.

Factors That Affect Feeding Requirements

There are some steps that can be taken to slow the metabolism of tropical fish and limit both their desire and the time available to search for food. Lowering the temperature a few degrees will slow the metabolic processes of the fish and lessen the demand for food.

Reducing the amount of light an aquarium receives will also help in lowering the food demands of its inhabitants. A timer set to allow 6 hours of light rather than that of a full 12 hour day will both slow down food consumption and allow the resting fish to burn less calories thereby limiting their hunger.

The age and size of the fish and the aquarium itself are also important factors regarding the ability of the fish to survive without being fed. Older fish have stored fat in their body mass and can survive for longer periods of time than younger fish. Baby fish cannot survive more than day or two without feeding.

A well established aquarium can be left for longer periods of time than a new one. In an ecologically balanced aquarium the tank mates have experience surviving in this environment. Regular water changes and some algae growth will aid the ability of the fish to survive longer. It can be dangerous to leave a new tank for extended periods of time.

Vacation Feeding For Aquarium Fish

If you are planning to leave your fish for an extended period of time there are some steps you can take to minimize the risk to the fish. Perform a partial water change a few days before departing and clean your filter thoroughly. Feed the fish well for at least the week before you leave. As stated above, lower the temperature a few degrees to slow down the metabolism and use a timer to reduce the amount of time the aquarium is lit.

A good sense of how your aquarium and its inhabitants will hold up while left alone is to keep a “hands off”approach for a length of time. Do not feed or maintain the tank and observe how everyone is doing. This should be done some time before you leave and prior to the aforementioned water and filter changes.

During an absence of a few days these steps should suffice to maintain the health of your fish. Use their size and age as a guide for the amount of time you can safely avoid feeding them.

If you will be gone for a longer period of time there are some food delivery options. Automatic feeders are available which can be set up to feed specific foods at timed intervals. Feeding blocks that slowly dissolve and release food pellets are also available but are not as reliable as automatic feeders as they can be adversely impacted by the tank’s PH levels.

How Long Can Your Fish Go Without Food

As you can see there are a number of factors to be considered before leaving your fish unfed for any length of time. Understanding the species that you are keeping is critical to planning their survival. A well maintained aquarium stocked with healthy, well fed fish is the first step. This will enable them to get though their period of fasting with no ill effects. They will be happy to see you on your return.

How To Grow Aquarium Plants – Your Ultimate Guide To Aquatic Plants

When it comes to decorating your home aquarium, you have a wide variety of options to choose from. The easiest option is to pick out some synthetic plants and other novelty décor items. Though this may be the easiest option available, it isn’t necessarily the best – especially if you want your aquarium to be impressive. To make your aquarium something to behold, and to make it an environment worthy of your fish, you should think about filling it with aquarium plants. Nothing is more beautiful than a lushly planted aquarium filled to the brim with thriving aquatic plants.

Growing an aquarium fill of live plants does take some planning and a little bit of work, but it is well worth the effort. If you’ve never grown aquarium plants before, don’t worry – it isn’t too difficult for a beginner! Your key to success lies in educating yourself about the process before you begin and in planning it all out from the start - that is where this tutorial comes into play. In this tutorial, you will receive detailed instructions for every step of the process from choosing your substrate and picking out your plants to setting up the tank. Keep reading to learn how to get started!

What You Will Need To Follow This Tutorial

You can probably already guess some of the things you are going to need in order to follow this tutorial. First and foremost, you’ll need an aquarium – the size and shape is up to you, but make sure you have plenty of room for plants. Next, you’ll have to pick out the right substrate for your tank as well as the live plants you want to cultivate. Last but not least, you’ll need to equip your tank with a heater, filter, and lighting system to support the growth of all those live plants. Here is a detailed list of everything you are going to need:

  • Aquarium.
  • Planted tank substrate.
  • Aquarium gravel.
  • Foreground plants.
  • Midground plants.
  • Background plants.
  • Aquarium heater.
  • Aquarium filter.
  • Aquarium lighting system.

Step By Step Instructions

Now that you have a better understanding of exactly what you’ll need to cultivate a planted tank, you are ready to get started! Don’t worry – we’ll take you through the process step by step to make sure everything goes according to plan. Here is how to get started:

Selecting Your Substrate

There are a number of different planted tank substrates out there, but your best option is to choose a product like EcoComplete that contains all of the nutrients your plants will need to grow. You’ll need enough substrate to put down a 4- to 6-inch layer along the bottom of your tank. You may also want to put down a layer of fine aquarium gravel on top of the substrate to keep your plants in place.

Picking Out Your Plants

The best part about cultivating a planted tank is picking out your plants! There are many different aquatic plants out there and some of them are easier to grow than others. If you have a betta tank, you can learn more about best plant for betta here. Your best bet is to start out with some hardy plants that tend to grow quickly so they will spread and fill in the space in your tank without you having to buy too many. Be sure to choose an assortment of foreground, mid-ground, and background plants. Foreground plants include things like carpet moss and other plants that grow no more than 1 to 3 inches tall. Mid-ground plants can be a few inches taller but your background plants should be the tallest. While shopping for your plants, make sure to buy species that have similar tank requirements in terms of water chemistry and lighting. Buy enough to decorate your tank but not to fill it completely – your fish need room too!

Setting Up Your Tank

Part of setting up your tank involves choosing and installing your tank equipment. The three most important pieces of aquarium equipment you’ll need to cultivate a planted tank are an aquarium heater, a filter, and a lighting system.

Choosing Your Heater

Aquarium heaters are easy to come by and easy to use – just find one that is rated for the size of your tank and follow the instructions to set it up. You should be able to set the thermostat on the heater to keep the water in your tank within the proper range for both your fish and your plants.

Picking A Tank Filter After

choosing your tank heater you’ll want to pick out a tank filter. The easiest option for beginning aquarium hobbyists is a hang-on filter, also known as a power filter. These filters come in a variety of sizes for different tanks and they usually offer three-stage filtration – mechanical, chemical, and biological. Follow the instructions to set up your tank filter and make sure it is working properly.

Shopping For Aquarium Lighting

Perhaps the most important piece of equipment for a planted tank is your aquarium lighting system. Aquarium plants are photosynthetic so they need 8 to 12 hours of light each day to provide them with the energy they need to sustain their growth. Choose a lighting system that is the appropriate size for your tank – compact fluorescent lights are usually the most cost-effective option.

Putting It All Together

After choosing and installing your tank equipment, all that is left is to add your substrate and your plants! Follow these steps to plant your tank:

  1. Rinse your substrate well until the water runs clear.
  2. Line the bottom of your tank with 4 to 6 inches of the rinsed substrate.
  3. Fill your aquarium with lukewarm water and use a water conditioner to remove the chlorine.
  4. Set up your tank heater, filter, and lighting system and make sure they are all running properly.
  5. Start with your foreground plants, burying the roots in the substrate along the front wall of the tank.
  6. Add your mid-ground plants around the sides of the tank behind the foreground plants.
  7. Plant your background plants along the back wall of the tank.
  8. Add any other decorations you like in the middle of the tank – just be sure to leave enough open space for your fish to swim.
  9. Let your tank run for 2 to 3 weeks to establish the nitrogen cycle before adding your fish.
  10. Acclimate your fish to the tank and resume normal care.


Did you enjoy this tutorial for growing aquarium plants? Hopefully after reading this guide you see just how easy it is to grow aquatic plants in your very own aquarium. A lushly planted tank can turn a boring aquarium into a beautiful aquatic environment for your fish and it will be something you can be proud of! Like and share this article with your friends and leave us some comments about your experience with growing aquarium plants. Good luck and have fun!

How To Transport Fish Easily And Safely

If you are moving from one location to another and you want to take your aquarium fish with you, there is a safer way that you can do to minimize stress on your fish while maximizing its survival rate. Moving to a new home with your fish is quite challenging. Every aquarium has its own unique ecosystem that will keep your fish happy and healthy.

The aquarium must be empty before transporting because it may break, aside from being heavy, while in transit. A safer way is to transfer the fish to another container (smaller) and then refill it at your new home, while you take the aquarium with you without the water. This article will help you on how to transport fish easily and safely without harming the fish. Consequently, we have 3 basic steps on how to do it, read along.

What You Will Need To Follow This Tutorial

These are the few things that you will need when you go on transporting your fish to another home. Following this tutorial, there is no elaborate tools needed. Just these 3 tools will do, and add some enthusiasm and lots of caution.

Step By Step Instructions

Transporting fish in short distances that will take only less than an hour does not require them to be out of the tank. But for journeys that will take more than an hour, they are supposed to be out of the tank while the tank must be empty. Here are the safest ways to transport fish easily and keep them alive and happy along the way.

Before Moving: Preparing The Aquarium And The Fish

Plan ahead before you move. Do these following activities prior to your move:

  • Replace 20% of the water in your aquarium 5 days before your expected move.
  • Feeding your fish 24 to 48 hours before the actual date of moving is a big no-no, but be sure that the fish are well-fed prior to moving. Don’t be afraid, fish can survive a couple of days without food.

Just an important reminder: In case your journey would last a week or longer, you should contact your pet store and let them make the transport for your fish. Make a signed agreement stating the pet store’s responsibilities on transporting your fish. Other pet stores will transport your fish by air-shipping them to your new home.

On The Day Of Moving: Measures To Take In Protecting Your Fish While Moving

  • Transfer the fish to your prepared fish bags. You can buy these bags from your pet store or any aquarium supplies store like Amazon. Fill a third of a bag and use the water from the tank, so that the chemistry of the water is still intact and other remaining food is present. Don’t forget to allow enough air in the bag to give the fish enough oxygen during the trip.
  • Take also enough plants from the tank and put them inside the bag together with the fish. This will make good bacteria in the bag alive.
  • Empty the tank of water and remove the remaining devices, substrate, decorations and other ornaments. Then clean the tank with scrubbing pad (without soap or detergent). Place these other ornaments in plastic bags filled with water also from the tank to keep the beneficial bacteria that has grown on the decorations. Make sure that the tank is free from any hard objects that may damage it during transit.
  • If your move will take only about a couple of hours, do not clean the filter, just put it in a container (pail or bucket), also filled with water from the tank. For long moves, clean it by using running water and a scrubbing pad. While packing the heater, pump, and other add-on and treat them like you are packing fragile items.
  • It is better to move the tank while it is empty to avoid breaking. Do not either attempt to put any object in the tank while in transit.

Arriving At Your Destination: Setting Up The Tank

It is only proper that you set up the tank as the same way you have done when you first set it up. It is essential for the fish’s survival and their acclimation with their new environment. Follow these simple steps to assure of happy and healthy fish.

  • Return carefully all decorations and ornaments inside the aquarium.
  • Pour the water you have saved prior to your moving.
  • Set up properly (on the same spot) your devices (heaters, pumps, filters).
  • Place the alive plants inside the tank.
  • In adding the fish from the plastic bag, let the bag float for a while inside the tank to balance the temperature between the water in the tank and in the bag. At the moment the water temperature is on the proper range, you can now pour the fish and the water it used to swim to.


Did you enjoy this tutorial? Learning the basic knowledge in moving fish will save their lives, as the proper steps on how to transport fish is very crucial for their survival. Write to us about your comments if you find this tutorial very interesting, like and share this article with your friends and love ones, especially those who often move to another place of residence, you can surely help them to keep their fish alive and well.

How To Breed Superworms Easily

Superworms are some of the best sources of nutrients for your fish and you can breed them inside your home easily. Compared to mealworm, superworm (also known as King worm) is softer and could be easily digested by your fish. Breeding superworms are not costly and it could be done with the simple process, with a little patience you could have your own fish feed continuously and save you lots of money.

Superworms have typically four (4) life stages, namely: egg, larva, pupae and beetle. The only ones that reproduce are the beetles, they will continue the breeding process. Breeding your own feeders is the best way to save you money on your fish food cost and at the same time, you enjoy all its benefits. This tutorial is about, “How to breed superworms” it is your gateway to start a worm colony that could lead you to an unlimited supply of fish feed.

How To Breed Superworms

You only need to buy a good number of superworm larvae that is ready to pupate in a matter of days. At this stage, the worms are much easier to raise and bring into metamorphose state. The pupation of the worms is an important phase of the life cycle and the only means to acquire the needed beetles for breeding.

These are the things that you will need to start your own superworm colony at the convenience of your home:

  • 100 pieces 35mm film containers or baby food jars (or similar containers).
  • 2 Plastic trays with mesh cover and dimensions of 14 X 10 X 3.5 inches (such as Rubbermaid or Sterilite brands).
  • A colony of worms (about 100 individuals, such as the Worm Man’s Worm Farm brand).
  • Substrate (you can use oat bran, wheat germ or rolled oats).
  • Egg crates.
  • Thermometer.
  • Worm food ( like carrots, potato or apples).

Step By Step Instructions

Housing The Larvae

Live superworms could be ordered online and delivered to you in about 3 days. Once your package arrives, put each worm in clean 35mm film containers or baby food jars (whichever is available). Punch a hole on the covers for the worms to breath. They need to be separated individually in order for them to pupate, which could take about 2 weeks. Ambient temperature should be kept between 70F and 80F and put them in the darker part of the house.

Keeping them together is a no-no, as you cannot obtain the needed beetles for another cycle. Keep the containers covered during this time and do not give them food or water to avoid prolonging its morphing process.

Monitoring The Worms

Check on the worms every now and then. Better to take a peek at the containers as often as you could and check the ambient temperature. If the room is becoming colder, adjust your heater. On the other hand, if the room is becoming hotter, just open some windows slightly so that cold air will circulate freely inside the room.

Larva To Pupae

After several days, the worms will hibernate and will become dormant. During the first week of the morphing process, you could find curled up worms ( in a letter “C” or “E” position). This is a good sign as the worms have proof of life which indicate that they are beginning to morph. Keep on checking as long as you have the time, including the ambient temperature which should be kept still between 70F to 80F. The stage from larva to pupate lasts from 1 to 2 weeks.

Separate Or Dispose The Dead

There's also a possibility that you could find worms in a straight position, sometimes they appeared black in color and hard. These are dead worms and you have to separate and dispose them properly.

Pupae To Beetle

At the end of the second week of morphing, you will find their legs getting darker, this is a sign that beetles are emerging. The pupated worms will appear white or cream in color during this time. The stage from pupae to beetle also takes 1 to 2 weeks.

Transfering The Beetles In A Larger Container

Before the second week of morphing ends, the worms are now transformed into beetles. It is now time to put them together in a larger container. This will now become the beetles’ breeding ground. Before transferring, put substrate at the bottom of the larger container (Rubbermaid or Sterilite) at least 1-inch thick that will serve as bedding. The beetles will eat the substrate and consequently lay their eggs in the surface.

Add the egg tray in one corner of the container to serve as the beetles’ gathering place. This will keep the beetles from digging into the substrate and eat the eggs laid in there. Add the worm food (sliced carrots, potato or apple ) or water crystals that will serve as the beetles’ water source for drinking and moisture. It is advisable that they are given enough water source because too much water will get into the substrate and this may ferment the bedding, creating unwanted bacteria that could kill the beetles. Consequently, the lack of water or moisture inside the container will dehydrate the beetles, there is a big possibility that they will devour each other. So, better not to forget these important tips.

Raising Superworms

When the beetles are already laying eggs, transfer the beetles on a fresh and clean container every 2 to 4 weeks, with also new bedding and worm feeds, to start again another cycle of egg laying. The eggs left behind will be hatched within 3 weeks after they are laid. Before they are hatched, add again slices of apples, potatoes or carrots for the worms to feed.

These pupae are now the superworms that you can feed to your fish. The beetles you have separated in another container will continue the cycle of laying eggs. Adult beetles have a lifespan of about 5 months. A female beetle lays about 500 eggs during its lifetime.


Did you enjoy this tutorial? Now that you found out that how to breed super worms is an easy task, combined with patience and perseverance, you can have an unlimited supply of fish feed on demand. You just continue and repeat the breeding process once you produced the beetles and eggs. What a clever idea, really!

What do you think of this tutorial? Did you like it? Please share what you have in mind about this useful article with your comments.

How To Humanely Kill A Fish Without The Guilt

What if your fish suddenly becomes ill and there is no way to save or cure it? This is certainly tragic. Of course, there are ways to avoid this scenario, but we have to accept the reality and sometimes we have to sometimes succumb to nature's heartbreaking wishes. If everything fails and there is no other way to save the life of your pet, there is a better way to end its life than to wait and let it suffer.

To bury a fish while it is alive is inhumane. Euthanasia (mercy killing) is the only remaining option on how to humanely kill a fish. If euthanasia is inevitable, you must be willing to accept the truth and consider this option to end your pet's suffering promptly. This article will certainly give you some idea of the various methods of mercy killing a fish.

What You Will Need To Follow This Tutorial

The materials/ tools and drugs listed below are not necessarily all that you will need to euthanize your very sick fish. You can read all of the information containin this article first and decide later on the best way for you to kill your fish quickly and without guilt.

Using Drugs/ Anesthetics

  • Tricaine Methanesulfonate -TMS (commonly known as MS-222).
  • Clove Oil/ Vodka.
  • Benzocaine HCL.
  • Syringe with needle.
  • Acetone/ ethanol.

Using Simple Methods

  • Knife/ club.

Step By Step Instructions

Here are the various methods you need to know in order to humanely kill a fish.

MS-222 Method

TMS is one of the most popular euthanizing methods among the academic sectors which use fish for experiments or studies. MS-222 is known in the market as Finquel and is available in pet stores. It is a type of anesthesia and the only product approved by FDA for use to euthanizing fish by injection. The lethal dose is usually 250 to 500 mg depending on the size of your fish.

Dissolve a substantial amount of the powder, MS-222, in a glass or bottle and transfer the mixture in a syringe. Inject this drug into your fish's bloodstream and it will consequently die within minutes without prolong pain and suffering.

Clove Oil /Vodka Method

Dissolve 13 drops of clove oil in a liter of water in a small container where the fish can be funny submerged. This will anesthetize the fish enabling it to sleep and consequently will be unable to feel pain. Next, pour a glass of vodka, (a grain alcohol) in to the container. The strong alcohol in vodka will certainly kill the fish.

Benzocaine Method

This drug requires a veterinarian's prescription and is not readily available over-the-counter. This drug is not water soluble and must be mixed with acetone or ethanol for it to euthanize the fish.

Soak the fish in a container (this requires only a small amount of water) with this mixture and it will die within minutes as these chemicals irritate fish tissue causing it to go into a comma and lead to death.

Using A Knife

Physically, killing a fish is one of the quickest methods. Using a sharp knife, insert it behind the skull of the fish severing its spinal cord and vertebrae. This will kill the fish instantly.

Using A Club (Decapitation)

This method is also quick and swift. Strike the fish on its head with the club larger end of the fish. This will make the fish unconscious. Once the fish is unconscious, cut its head immediately. The fish will have no timeto feel the pain or suffer.

How To Dispose Of A Dead Fish

Now that you have a dead fish in your possession, you can bury it at least a foot deep in your own backyard (you might follow some local ordinances regarding this matter). If you have no available soil, such as those living in condominiums, you can bury the fish in a potted plant


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How To Grow Algae For Your Aquarium

Most of the time, you want to reduce the amount of algae or eradicate it. On the other hand, it may be beneficial to promote algae growth in your fish tank as many aquarium fish thrive from eating this organism.

Allowing the growth of algae inside your fish tank is quite easy. But first, you should know that initially growing algae is best suited outside of the fish tank. Algae is eaten by some of the fish species and other marine animals, such as the Bristlenose Plecos, Siamese Algae Eater, Tropheus cichlids, some Malawi cichlids, Twig Cat Fish, Dwarf Otocinclus (aka Otos), Mollies, Barbs, Malaysian Trumpet Snail, Nerite Snails, Amano Shrimp and small goldfish. If you have one of these animals as a pet, you can save a lot from your weekly food bill by learning how to grow algae. So you can certainly learn a lot from this tutorial, keep on reading.

What You Will Need

When you already have an aquarium in existence, it is best to grow algae separately. Let the algae nourish inside another container and introduce the algae into your fish tank when it is finally time to mix it with the aquarium water. Here are the different tools and materials that you should need to grow algae in a home setting:

  • 2 medium (500 ml) containers.
  • Freshwater.
  • Nutrient Solution (such as Walne brand).
  • Thermometer.
  • Fluorescent compact bulb.
  • Aluminum foil.
  • Water sample from pet shop.

Step By Step Instructions

1. Making A Growth Medium

Filling Water Into The Container

When using a container as a growth medium, be sure that it is totally clean and sterilized before putting water into it. After cleaning the container (flask), pour fresh water ( tap or spring water) into the container, you can boil your water if you suspect it is contaminated.

Supplementing Nutrients

Add Nutrient Solution to the water at the end, such as nitrates, silicates, and phosphates. Algae co-exist naturally with other aquatic life and they keep the ecosystem underwater in equilibrium. The lack of nutrients will the production of algae.

Additionally, micro-nutrients like vitamins and trace metals are also needed to produce algae inside your container. Adding a substantial amount of Nutrient Solution to the container will begin the process of producing these nutrients and vitamins. Nutrient Solution ( you can research other brands) is available at your pet store. Ask your veterinarian for the right amount of this solution to produce enough algae in your container. Cover the container with aluminum foil to allow air and carbon dioxide to circulate. Carbon dioxide also feeds algae.

Keep The Container Under Plenty Of Sunlight

Algae grow and thrive in high light levels. Place your container where there is plenty of sunlight as this will provide the energy the tiny organism need to thrive and reproduce. The ideal temperature for algae growth is 29 to 34C (84 to 93F). However, avoid excessive exposure to light during the day as this may mean higher temperature. Furthermore, at night time where sunlight is absent, you can leave your container near a fluorescent bulb or other heating unit to maintain the temperature, just like when incubating an egg. Monitor its temperature occasionally.

2. Introducing An Algae Sample

Choosing The Type Of Algae

The best type of algae you want to grow is the one that would be eaten by your fish. In this case, you can ask your pet dealer on what species of algae is conducive for your preferred fish species.

Gather An Algae Specimen

It is now time to add a specimen sample to your water. Again, the best source of this sample is from your dealer’s aquarium where you purchase your fish. A good sample of 150 to 250ml is an adequate amount. Pour the specimen sample into your growth medium making sure the right amount of light is still available. Continue to maintain the right temperature and appropriate amount of sunlight and you may able to see algae growth within 4 days.

Adding Nutrients If Needed

As the algae absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and this benefits its growth. However, to sustain a good quality algae as fish food, add some nutrients to it by allowing a few drops of Nutrient Solution. As the algae grows, It will become compact inside the container and may appear green. Green algae is a good variety for your fish to eat.

Transferring Algae To Another Container

Full-blown algae you should be able to see in your container after 8-10 days. You can transfer a substantial amount to the medium-sized container you prepared previously. This will serve as a seed for your next growth medium for separate algae growth so that you have a continuous supply of algae to feed your fish continuously. You will not need to get a sample from your favorite pet store.

To be able to have a continuous supply of algae to feed your fish, just repeat the process we have described above, again and again. Meanwhile, you are now ready to pour your cultured algae into your fish tank where your fish are waiting.


Did you enjoy this tutorial on how to grow algae for your aquarium even if you are not a chemist? We hope you did, and you can learn to grow the duckweed here. Producing weekly food for your fish is truly easy and enjoyable. You can really save a lot on your food bill, and you could be able to enjoy the fruit of your labor. Also, you can provide them the much-needed nutrients from organic food. Share this article with your friends and other aquarists so that they may find a better alternative in keeping algae-eating pets healthy and happy.

How To Increase Or Decrease PH In An Aquarium In Easy Methods

Remember what you have studied in your high school chemistry about pH? Well, it will surely have a significant role to play in the pursuit of a successful and fruitful aquarium hobby of yours. In chemistry, pH (roughly means “potential of hydrogen) is the measurement of the acidity and alkalinity of liquid. Drinking water has a pH of 7 (neutral), meaning it is neither acidic nor basic.

In an aquarium setting, the pH level could vary or be totally different before and after every change of water. The increases or decreases in pH level will certainly have an impact on the health of your fish inside the tank, and worst, it might kill your fish if not attended properly. Common fish species thrive on a pH level ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. Seawater has an average pH of 8.1 on its surface. On this article, we are going to show you some valuable tips on how to adjust pH level (increasing or decreasing) inside your aquarium. Firstly, you should know its effect.

I. What Are The Effects Of High/Low PH Level In Your Aquarium?

1. High PH Induces Hig Alkalinity

Fish thrive and survive on a pH level range of 6.5 to 8.5, as we have stated earlier, but what will happen if the pH level surpasses 8.5? Here are some of the effects on your fish and the environment inside the tank:

  • Affects the fish’ s gills (like abnormal secretion of mucus).
  • The fish will suffer alkalosis that will make them behave unusually like like erratic swimming, labored breathing, coughing.
  • Algae growth in the walls and tank’s ornaments.
  • Consequent death of fish if not properly attended on time.

2. Low PH Induces Highly Acidic

Low pH value is a sign of increase acidity on the water. The value less than 6.5 should also be a cause for alarm. Like abnormally high pH, low pH may induce high acidity on the water, here are some of its detrimental effects on the fish:

  • Fish will have an excessive mucous production.
  • Fish skin will become easily irritated and may cause to burn slightly.
  • The fish may inhibit gasping and hyperplasia (the thickening of gills and skin).
  • Blindness and eye damage on the fish.
  • The fish will consequently die if untreated.

II. What You Need To Test PH Level

There are various ways to determine the pH value of the water inside your fish tank. Here are some of the most common tools:

  • pH Meter.
  • Litmus paper (pH only).
  • Universal Test strip (pH only).
  • API Master Test Kit (includes ammonia, nitrite and nitrate level measurements).
  • TetraTest Kit (pH only).

III. What You Need To Increase/ Decrease PH Level

Some of the tools you need to increase or decrease the pH level of the water are already installed inside the fish tank. Others are readily available from your nearest convenience store or pet store, be sure that you have these stuff handy every time.

  • Live plants/ ornaments.
  • Bubble disk.
  • Bubble wands.
  • Powerheads.
  • Peat moss.
  • Driftwood.
  • Baking soda.

IV. Step By Step Instructions To Increase Or Decrease The Water’s PH Level

Always remember that sudden change in the water’s pH level is also detrimental to the fish. Learn how to increase or decrease pH level gradually (the increase or decrease of 0.3 unit of pH per day is ideal). Also, before you make the necessary adjustments, be sure that the fish is not inside the tank but in a safe place or container. Once you know the exact condition of the water in your fish tank, here are some of the basic methods on how to lower/ adjust its pH level:

1. Lowering PH Level


Putting additional live plants inside the fish tank could help in reducing the pH level as live plants could induce significant amounts of CO2 (carbon dioxide) as plants absorb this gas from the atmosphere.

2. Increasing PH Level

  • Using baking soda

One of the most common methods of raising the pH level on aquariums is by using baking soda. A teaspoon of baking soda with 5 gal. of water is a safe dose and will not harm the fish. An incremental increase of this dose on conditioned water is advised until you attain the desired pH level of the water.

VI. Conclusion

Making your tank as fish-friendly as possible is not really a difficult task to do. Even novices can easily understand and perform lowering or increasing the pH level in the aquarium with ease and confidence. Additionally, accessories inside the aquarium, such as driftwood and other airstones are good decorations and ornaments inside your fish tank and they come cheap, while they also make water quality inside the tank more pleasurable to your pet. Do you find this article helpful? Share this and let us know in the comments!